A disorder of esophageal function
leading to difficulty swallowing.
of the esophagus that results
from prolonged heartburn, causing
the lining of the esophagus to
be converted into tissue similar
to that which lines the stomach.
The inability of food or liquids
to pass easily from the mouth,
into the throat, or from the esophagus
into the stomach during swallowing.
A procedure in which an endoscope,
an instrument which enables the
viewing of internal organs, is
inserted into the gastrointestinal
tract through the mouth.
allergic inflammatory disease
eosinophils (white blood cells)
are increased in the esophagus.
Muscular tube that transports
food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Both ends are closed off by sphincters
(muscular constrictions) that
relax to let food through and
close to keep food from backing
Internal medicine specialty devoted
to the diseases and disorders
of the digestive system.
condition in which stomach
backwards into the esophagus.
It cause heartburn, and,
chest pain, palpitations, hoarseness,
sore throats, and dental
The sensation of burning behind
the breast bone (sternum), associated
usually with reflux (regurgitation)
of stomach and/or intestine contents
into the esophagus.
The result of upward
displacement of the stomach through
an opening in the diaphragm; may
be associated with chest pain
results from prolonged acid reflux
(heartburn) that causes the lining
of the esophagus to be converted
into tissue similar to that which
lines the stomach. This transformation
makes the esophageal tissue more
susceptible to cancer.
Also known as dyspepsia, indigestion
is a term used to describe one
or more symptoms including a feeling
of fullness during a meal, uncomfortable
fullness after a meal, and burning
or pain in the upper abdomen.
Thin sheets of tissue that cover
or line various parts of the body
such as the mouth or digestive
FUN-doh-plih-KAY-shun): An operation
to sew the top of the stomach
(fundus) around the esophagus.
Used to stop stomach contents
from flowing back into the esophagus
(reflux) and to repair a hiatal
The hollow tube that starts behind
the nose and ends at the top of
the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus.
Pump Inhibitors reduce the production
of acid by blocking the enzyme
in the wall of the stomach that
produces acid. The reduction of
acid prevents ulcers and allows
any ulcers that exist in the esophagus,
stomach and duodenum to heal.
Procedures in which an endoscope
is inserted through the rectum
to view the intestines.
health care provider may recommend
over-the-counter antacids or medications
that stop acid production or help
the muscles that empty your stomach
to work more efficiently. You
can buy many of these medications
without a prescription. However,
see your health care provider
before starting or adding a medication.
such as Alka-Seltzer, Maalox,
Mylanta, Rolaids, and Riopan,
are usually the first drugs
recommended to relieve heartburn
and other mild GERD symptoms.
Many brands on the market use
different combinations of three
basic salts—magnesium, calcium,
and aluminum—with hydroxide
or bicarbonate ions to neutralize
the acid in your stomach. Antacids,
however, can have side effects.
Magnesium salt can lead to diarrhea,
and aluminum salt may cause
constipation. Aluminum and magnesium
salts are often combined in
a single product to balance
as Tums, Titralac, and Alka-2,
can also be a supplemental source
of calcium. They can cause constipation
- such as Gaviscon,
work by covering your stomach
contents with foam to prevent
- such as cimetidine
(Tagamet HB), famotidine (Pepcid
AC), nizatidine (Axid AR), and
ranitidine (Zantac 75), decrease
acid production. They are available
in prescription strength and
over-the-counter strength. These
drugs provide short-term relief
and are effective for about
half of those who have GERD
omeprazole (Prilosec, Zegerid),
lansoprazole (Prevacid), pantoprazole
(Protonix), rabeprazole (Aciphex),
and esomeprazole (Nexium), which
are available by prescription.
Prilosec is also available in
over-the-counter strength. Proton
pump inhibitors are more effective
than H2 blockers and can relieve
symptoms and heal the esophageal
lining in almost everyone who
help strengthen the lower esophageal
sphincter (LES) and make the
stomach empty faster. This group
includes bethanechol (Urecholine)
and metoclopramide (Reglan).
Metoclopramide also improves
muscle action in the digestive
tract. Prokinetics have frequent
side effects that limit their
depression, anxiety, and problems
with physical movement.
Because drugs work in different
ways, combinations of medications
are often used to control symptoms.
For example, people who get heartburn
after eating may take both antacids
and H2 blockers. The antacids
work first to neutralize the acid
in the stomach, and then the H2
blockers act on acid production.
By the time the antacid stops
working, the H2 blocker will have
stopped acid production.
Your health care provider is
the best source of information
about how to use medications for